Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Impact Of Bipolar Disorder On The Development Of Self

I found the article, â€Å"I Actually Don’t Know Who I am†: The Impact of Bipolar Disorder on the Development of Self† (2008), by Inder, M., Corwoe., M.,T., Moor, S., Luty, S. E., Carter, J.D., and Joyce, P. R to be very interesting and very much needed. The research explored how one’s sense of self is impacted by the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD) at an early age. As seen in the study, the diagnosis had a major impact on the participant’s sense of identity and self worth. There was four major problem areas that were identified; â€Å"Confusion, contradiction, self-doubt, and self-acceptance† Inder, et al (2008). All of the participants in the study have indicated that these four critical areas were impacted as a result of being labeled with†¦show more content†¦However, what I did not realize at that time was that I was in the stage of substance abuse and experimenting. I ended up in this treatment center for rebellious behav iors after my parents divorced and other social stressors. My single mother couldn’t handle me at the time and sent me away via an Incorrigibility petition. I was admitted to an adolescent treatment center, where I resided for ten months at the age of 15. It was here where I was convinced that I was an â€Å"addict†, a label that I carried proudly for many years. While I do not regret my 18 years of â€Å"recovery† and I learned many valuable lessons, principles, and â€Å"a new way of life†, I do not believe that a teenager should be exposed to some of the things that I was exposed to. In terms of professionally, I now see how my own experience of being labeled, as well as some of my patient’s experience has negatively impacted them. I make it very clear in group therapy, that they do not need to identify themselves as an â€Å"addict, alcoholic, junkie, cross-addicted, depressed, bipolar, crazy† or whatever other labels they attach to themselves. I have come to understand that these labels, while practical in some settings, are more detrimental and I think they keep people stuck in a pattern ofShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Bipolar Disorder On The Development Of Self1010 Words   |  5 PagesBipolar Disorder is described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) as a mood disorder with manic symptoms. Individuals with the disorder may swing between periods of depression and mania. Bipolar disorder has subtypes characterized by the frequency and intensity of manic and depressive episodes. Onset typically occurs when one is a young adult, but can often occur during the early teen years. There are numerous developmental considerations to early onset Bipolar disorderRead MoreThe Third Core Theme Is Disruption1194 Words   |  5 PagesDisruption, which focuses on the bipolar impact on how the individual learns to create consistency in their life’s direction. This then spirals down to the disruption and discontinuity in the person’s education, employment, and career development. As human beings, it is pivotal that we distinguish between what others believe we should or ought to be, and a person’s individual belief of what he or she should or would ideally like to be. When diagnosed with bipolar disorder, many have a sense of the directionRead MoreDiagnosing Bipolar Disorder659 Words   |  3 PagesBipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness that requires treatment. Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that causes drastic emotional changes and mood swings. Transmutations in mood can range from manic highs, to depressive lows. Bipolar disorder is a mental condition that can lead to dangerous demeanors. These may be things such as cutting or inflicting harm to one’s self. Patients will spend 3 times more days depressed than in a manic state. Due to the variations in episodes, BipolarRead MoreBipolar Disorder : A Major Impact On The Social, Educational, And Occupational Development Of Individuals1729 Words   |  7 PagesBipolar disorder is a highly intermittent illness often beginning in the critical life period of late adolescence and early adulthood. Bipolar disorder can have a major impact on the social, educational and occupational development of individuals. Psychotherapy has been found to treat people with a mental disorder by helping them understand their illness. It teaches people strategies and gives them tools to deal with stress, unhealthy thoughts, and unhealthy behaviors. Psychotherapy helps patientsRead MoreThe Psychological Effects Of Bipolar Disorder1486 Words   |  6 PagesBipolar disorder is a common, recurrent, and debilitating mood disorder which causes shifts in mood and energy. According to NIMH (National Institutes of Mental Health), this disorder affects about 2.3 million adults in the United States and about 1.2% of the population worldwide. The first signs of the disorder normally appear in adolescence and early adulthood, rarely do children get diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder can also be called manic depressive disorder, is a serious mentalRead MoreBipolar Disorder And Its Unique Fast Transitional Mood Shifts1293 Words   |  6 PagesBipolar disorder is an illness known for its unique fast transitional mood shifts, usually from manic to depressive. (Moore, P et al., 2014.) This illness holds no prejudice as it can affect anyone at any age, gender or race. (Smith, M 2014) Bipolar disorder is not only dangerous to the patients themselves but could also potentially cause harm to bystanders as well. It is important to get treatment and prevent it from further development. A patient with bipolar disorder cannot differentiate betweenRead MorePsychological Disorder740 Words   |  3 PagesPsychological Disorder Paper Psy/450 University of Phoenix Amanda Kettinger 3 July 2010 Psychological Disorder Many mental disorders vary from person to person and in its on severity. All disorders have both a physical and psychological components. Abnormal behavior is difficult to define. Behavior may also be evaluated by whether it conforms to social rules and cultural norms, an approach that avoids reproachful nonconformists as irregular for behavior that, although strange, mayRead MoreBipolar Disorder : A Psychiatric Disorder947 Words   |  4 PagesBipolar disorder, like schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, is a severe psychiatric disorder. The disorder, as presented in Inder et al and Rusner et al, entails so much more than simply the highs (mania) and lows (depression). It is a disorder that causes intra- as well as interpersonal conflicts and difficulties. Some of the intrapersonal issues that arise with having bipolar disorder are the sense of identity confusion, feelings of inadequacy and ineffectiveness, self-esteem and self-worthRead MoreThe Effects Of Parental Bi polar Disorder On The Development Of Children Essay1167 Words   |  5 PagesThe Effects of Parental Bipolar Disorder on the Development of Children According to a study conducted by Diler et al. (2011), the children of parents with bipolar disorder are the most at risk for developing bipolar disorder and other psychiatric mood disorders. Parents and caregivers with bipolar disorder represent a unique factor that may alter healthy emotional and behavioral development of children. As bipolar disorder is a neurological disorder that causes drastic shifts in mood, abruptRead More Mood Disorder Essay1660 Words   |  7 Pages As many as 19 million Americans million are affected by mood disorders ( The two main types of mood disorders are bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder which are described as disturbances in mood, behavior and emotion.â€Å" Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder in which the core feature is pathological disturbance in mood ranging from extreme elation, or mania, to severe depression usually accompanied by disturbances in thinking and behavior, which may include psychotic symptoms, such as delusio ns

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Being Diagnosed With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - 2154 Words

I am one of many that are incapable of having kids on my own without the help from doctors. Having been diagnosed with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome at a younger age, I am one of many women who are not able to have kids on my own. I know that â€Å"missing† feeling people get when you start to plan out your life, not knowing if one day the gap will be filled or if you should fill the void with something else. This is where I want to be; the space between life and the gap; to try and help fill the inconsistency of others that share this discomfort. There is not anything more discomforting than someone with multiple kids patting your back, whispering soothing tones of â€Å"sorry† and wishful promises of, â€Å"it will happen for you one day.† Why, because you have the uterus of a donut machine at the local Krispy Kreme? I want to be the person there saying â€Å"I know what it’s like, and I’m going to be here to help you through this process.† This is why it is important to me to become a nurse in the field of infertility; to help others with this problem would not only provide me great satisfaction, but it will also help me to understand my own struggles with this problem. I’ve always wanted to do something to help others. My first idea was to help others with their natural beauty by being a hairstylist. That had always been something I enjoyed in my life as I was growing up. So after high school I pursued my dream and went to college for cosmetology. I enjoyed it for a while, but I still feltShow MoreRelatedPolycystic Ovary Syndrome Essay1031 Words   |  5 Pagesbecoming a mother; to love and watch her children grow. No one ever dreams of that not happening to them or being part of that group being label as infertile. It happens to millions of women living in the United States every day. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is the most common endocrine disease that affects women of reproductive age, which is typically puberty to menopause. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome does not only affect a woman’s ovaries and chances of conceiving, but it affects the whole endocrine systemRead MoreQuestions On Breast Ovarian Syndrome1240 Words   |  5 PagesArman i PCOS thesis paper Eng 110- 11am Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome I myself have struggled with issues for years before I was diagnosed correctly. PCOS can affect many different things in women going from producing male hormones to the inability to conceive. I found that research is becoming more descriptive and in depth as time goes on. Researchers are still looking into PCOS and are still working on what may be the real cause of PCOS. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a heath disorder that affects femalesRead MorePCOS Essay1152 Words   |  5 Pagesrecent years that effects women’s health is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). For more women to become knowledgeable about this disease health professionals need to educate women about what PCOS is, we need to recognize what ecological factors play a role in PCOS, and what can be done to help women manage their PCOS disease. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Approximately, eight to twenty percent of women worldwide suffer from Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome worldwide (National Institute of child healthRead MorePolycystic Ovary Syndrome2477 Words   |  10 PagesPolycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine disorder that affects at least 10% of women living in the United States. Insulin Resistance plays a large part in fertility for women who have polycystic ovary syndrome. Myo-Inositol improves fertility, and alleviates many of the symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance. Case findings of women with polycystic ovary syndrome were first documented in 1935 by American gynecologists Irving F. Stein, Sr., and Michael L. LeventhalRead MoreInfertility, Insulin Resistance, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Myo-Inositol1814 Words   |  8 PagesPolycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine disorder that affects at least 10% of women living in the United States. Insulin Resistance plays a large part in fertility for women who have polycystic ovary syndrome. Myo-Inositol improves fertility, and alleviates many of the symptoms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that affects many different parts of the body, not just the ovaries. The list of ailments associated with polycysticRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Diabetes Ovarian Syndrome979 Words   |  4 Pagesfrom Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). She explains that the acne on their face and spare tire around their stomach may not be from puberty, but from this disease. Even though in their adolescent years they may not have worried about starting their own family, but they can’t help but wonder about down the road. Now, the thoughts of having a hard time conceiving a baby or not being able to at all, runs through their head. Unfortunately finding out that they not only have Polycystic Ovarian SyndromeRead MoreInfertility : A Common Endocrine System Disorder Among Women Of Reproductive Age1568 Words   |  7 PagesInfertility due to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Infertility affects close to 6.1 Million US women during the reproductive age (7). What is infertility? Infertility is generally defined as â€Å"the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sex. After the age of 35 pregnancy becomes more difficult and if infertility persist a shorter timeframe of six months is recommended (2). Infertility is not an illness it is a disease. This disease may not always be painful physically but the pain isRead MorePolycystic Ovary Syndrome1224 Words   |  5 PagesChivalier 2 POLYCYSTIC OVARIES SYNDROME By: Christina Chivalier Polycystic Ovaries Syndrome (PCOS) is an ovulation disorder and infertility that occurs in many women. Polycystic ovaries syndrome dates back to 1845 where it was described in a French manuscript as being changes in the ovaries. It was called sclerocystic. Polycystic ovaries syndrome is a problem that occurs in with the ovaries. A polycystic ovary is characterized as being a tough, thickened, shiny white covering overlyingRead MoreThe Effect Of Eating On Eating And Exercise ( Qol Ed )2123 Words   |  9 Pagesirrespective of BMI. Keywords: PCOS; polycystic ovary syndrome; infertility; eating pathology; QOL ED. â€Æ' Capsule Eating pathology was assessed in twenty-one infertile women with and 132 women without PCOS. Infertile women with PCOS have greater eating pathology and a higher proportion of probable eating disorders. â€Æ' Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in females and affects up to 12-21% of women of reproductive age1. PCOS is a syndrome of clinical and/or biochemical signsRead MorePCOS Essay4926 Words   |  20 PagesOVULATION IN PCOS 2 RESTORING OVULATION IN PCOS Clomiphene Versus Metformin for Restoring Ovulation in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Daniel Kendall DNP-S, Brandi Knierim DNP-S, Molly Hilzendeger DNP-S University of Mary NUR 720 Clomiphene Versus Metformin for Restoring Ovulation in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of infertility that is caused by anovulation (Baran, Api, Goksedef, Cetin, 2010). Anovulatory

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Individual’s Characteristic Reactions To Social Stimuli Free Essays

According to Gordon Allport, an American psychologist, personality was â€Å"the individual’s characteristic reactions to social stimuli, and the quality of his adaptation to the social features of his environment.† Throughout different literature, the fact remained true as shown in the pieces of works like Sinclair Ross’s â€Å"The Painted Door†, and the novel The Secret Lives of Sgt. John by Lois Simmie. We will write a custom essay sample on The Individual’s Characteristic Reactions To Social Stimuli or any similar topic only for you Order Now In both of these literary works, a character’s personality showed that it was directly affected by their disposition and temperament towards the society they’re with, or their peers and the community around them. A character’s personality is based on his/her perspective of things around them. In Sinclair Ross’s short story, â€Å"The Painted Door†, Ann showed loneliness and isolation throughout the whole flow of the story as attested by the line, â€Å"All famers’ wives have to stay alone. I mustn’t give in this way. I mustn’t brood. A few hours now and they’ll be here,† (Ross, pg.3). Although they had their moments like, â€Å"once she had danced with Steven six or seven times in the evening, and they had talked about it as many months† (pg.4), she felt disconnected because she felt left behind. â€Å"Year after year their lives went on the same little groove.† Living in a farmland where the neighbours are distant, to whom could she tell how she felt inside than those she’d share a house with? Ann was reluctant to tell her husband what was really going on inside her head and eventually caved in to her isolation. Her dreams for something lively, cost her something that was dear to her, her husband. In any event, an individual’s personality was always apparent to those who were around them. In Lois Simmie’s novel, The Secret Lives of Sgt. John Wilson, Elizabeth Craig described Mary Wilson as â€Å"†¦bright and cheery and brave,† (Simmie, pg. 7). She later wrote to Commissioner Perry about her sister saying, â€Å"She was always brave and would’ve laughed at what would made me weep†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (pg. 171). However, amidst Mary Wilson’s brave and strong-willed disposition, she remained mostly oblivious about her husband, John Wilson, what he does and how acts during some circumstances as stated in page 8. After searching for her husband in a different country, being left behind and treated as a stranger by John, she ought to see the good in him as she always does during their marriage. Later, failing to do so, she became a  victim of her husband’s manipulation and infidelity. She still remained inconceivably blind from these acts and kept on going for her children. Concurrently, John Wilson was portrayed a â€Å"liar† (pg.9) who usually lied about things if it was in his favour. A concise description of his personality was an excerpt from James Hutchison’s letter to Commissioner Perry. â€Å"†¦I found him out to be a liar, a rogue, and a soulless scoundrel† (pg. 171). This description of him was further gratified in many different events. One of these events was when Conrad Read found the service revolver that went missing in John’s possession, even though John claimed that one of the officers had it. During a few incidences with car salesperson, he also portrayed his roguishness and untrustworthiness when the salesperson asked him for the payments for the two cars that Wilson bought. The salesperson later found out that he was off by $600 from his dealings with John Wilson. He enacted one of the most gruesome things possible when he killed his first wife, Mary Wilson, just to marry another woman at the same day! Later, as every act he displayed throughout his effort to have a new and better life backfired, he saw no hope; and foolishly imperiled himself. Therefore, as every person goes through with their own lives, there would be countless challenges that will change their personality, temperament and perspective. Through social, psycho-emotional, or even environmental disturbances, an individual’s personality could provide hints as to what they were going through or experienced. Their disposition to their current situation was exactly parallel to their personality. And in accordance to the rule, their personality is based on they perceive around them, and by how they react to circumstances. Further notes: Your teacher might require you to do a different topic. The topic for this essay is, â€Å"Does the environment affect an individuals personality?† And they might also require a different number of books or quotes to back up your thesis statement. How to cite The Individual’s Characteristic Reactions To Social Stimuli, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Over-Nite Sensation by Frank Zappa The Mothers of Invention free essay sample

â€Å"You either get it or you don’t,† is one of the truest quotes ever said about Frank Zappa’s music, spoken by Frank himself. Over-Nite Sensation is the perfect album for someone who doesn’t quite get Zappa’s work, but wants to. The album is fairly straightforward compared to most of his work, yet packs the punch a hardcore Zappa fan needs. From heavy guitar solos to satirical lyrics, the album oozes everything that is Frank Zappa. The album can be separated into three different chunks. First are a couple of songs that could be played on the radio, if Zappa’s music was played on the radio. These have a lyrical focus, demonstrating his talent for putting down and making fun of things in ordinary life. Then are a few heavier, longer songs filled with solos from not just the guitar, which Zappa plays as masterfully as ever, but also keyboards and a violin. We will write a custom essay sample on Over-Nite Sensation by Frank Zappa The Mothers of Invention or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The two pieces that end the album are each six minute tales blending the first two categories. With amazing guitar licks and clever lyrics, they’re a perfect topper to a well rounded album.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Admission Essay Help for Boston University

Admission Essay Help for Boston University Essay Prompts Admission Essay requirements Essay is a part for undergraduate application. Graduate students can submit optional essay with any additional information for admission committee. Admission essay / personal statement prompts Essay is an important part of your application because it demonstrates what you think and how clearly you express yourself. It’s also an opportunity for us to learn who you are beyond your grades and standardized test scores and gives you a chance to explain circumstances that may reflect certain grades or choices in your curriculum. Let your voice come through in your essay—this will help us better understand what distinguishes you from other applicants. Informational guide video how to write an essay. Office of Admissions Contacts International students can email at Facebook: BUAdmissions Twitter: @ApplyToBU Instagram: @ApplyToBU Tumblr: applytobu.tumblr.com Pinterest: ApplyToBU Phone: 617-353-2300 Fax: 617-353-9695 Boston University Admissions 881 Commonwealth Avenue 6th Floor, Admissions Boston, MA 02215 USA Career Services Lisa M. Toby Assistant Dean, Career Engagement Office: Talbot, T113C East Phone: 617-638-4675 Email: Maria McCarthy Director, Advising and Career Development Office: Talbot, T113B East Phone: 617-638-4602 Email: LinkedIn University Ranking for Media ProfessionalsGraduate #13 for DesignersUndergraduate #21 Alumni statistics (Alumni data based) Where they live Greater Boston Area 71,766 Greater New York City Area 28,459 Washington D.C. Metro Area 7,530 San Francisco Bay Area 7,453 Greater Los Angeles Area 6,893 Where they work Fidelity Investments 611 IBM 585 Massachusetts General Hospital 542 State Street 452 Harvard University 439 What they do Education -19,366 Media and Communication -16,599 Entrepreneurship 14,317 Healthcare Services 13,082 Sales 13,050 Research 12,549 Operations 11,939 Information Technology 10,766 What they studied Psychology 12,778 Business Administration and Management, General 12,299 Economics 11,457 Political Science and Government 7,938 Computer Science 7,480 English Language and Literature/Letters 7,330 International Relations and Affairs 7,179 Communication, General 6,385 What they’re skilled at Microsoft Office 35,166 Research 33,890 Public Speaking 32,721 Management 31,941 Social Media 31,861 Leadership 30,451 Microsoft Excel 25,599 Strategic Planning 24,041 Colleen McCreary (formerly Wheeler) CEO, CCKPartners Consulting Senior Technical Recruiter Technical Support Manager at Microsoft Chief People Officer at The Climate Corporation Director, Corporate HR Diversity at Electronic Arts   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   BS, Mass Communication and Public Relations   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1991 – 1995 Jeff Howe Visiting Scholar at MIT Assistant Professor at Northeastern University Contributing Writer at Village Voice Media Senior Writer at NewAssignment.net   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   MA, Creative Writing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   2010 – 2011 Jonathan Bush CEO and Co-founder at athenahealth Medic at US Army Consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1987 – 1988   Jay Adelson General Partner at Center Electric Member, Board of Directors at Defense.Net, Inc Chairman, Founder, CEO at Revision3 Founder, Chief Technology Officer at Equinix, Inc. B.S., Film and Broadcasting, Concentration in Computer Science   Recommendations to apply Great Systems Engineering School! I graduated from College of Engineering in 1991. BU had the best software systems engineering program in the country! Loved ever minute of it. The faculty was great, and provided an environment where it was not all academic, but practical business engineering projects and discussions. Good options were introduced as well through Harvard, specially the course on Engineering Management. Highly recommended. Imran Mirza President at Strategic Services Consulting | CD, BSc, MSc, ITIL, Prince2, MoP President at Strategic Services Consulting | CD, BSc, MSc, ITIL, Prince2, MoP 1989 – 1991, MSc

Saturday, March 7, 2020

A critical review on current debates about the effectiveness of self regulation of the UK press using the News Of The World as a case study The WritePass Journal

A critical review on current debates about the effectiveness of self regulation of the UK press using the News Of The World as a case study Introduction A critical review on current debates about the effectiveness of self regulation of the UK press using the News Of The World as a case study . The failure of self-regulation Perhaps the most significant condemnation of self-regulation stems from the current unethical (and illegal) practices which some journalists choose to engage in. Leading the way in underhand investigatory techniques was the tabloid paper NoW. Described by its owner James Murdoch as a crime fighter, it had a reputation for celebrity scoops and check-book journalism (08.07.11, BBC News). It was the desire to satiate its readership’s interest in this type of story which ultimately pushed it to commit serious violations of privacy. The first indications that it was engaging in phone hacking emerged in 2005 when the newspaper printed a story about a knee injury incurred by Prince William. Suspicions were raised as to how this information had been obtained and eventually the author of the article and an investigator from the paper were arrested and imprisoned for illegal phone hacking. To date the police have identified potentially 6,000 victims demonstrating the widespread extent o f this of crime (28.02.12, BBC News). Unable to sustain credibility the NoW closed in July 2011 under a torrent of allegations. The paper has had to pay out millions in damages to those whose privacy they compromised, including  £2million to the parents of Milly Dowler after it emerged that one of its journalists had tapped into the missing girl’s voicemails 28.02.12, BBC News). The inability of the Press Complaints Commission to prevent this type of journalistic behaviour, which reaches beyond the NoW, stems from a variety of factors. Unpacking current debate on self-regulation gets to the heart of these. Current debate over self-regulation In consequence of this scandal in November 2011 David Cameron convened the Leveson Inquiry to investigate the culture, practice and ethics of the press (24.04.12, BBC News). One of the findings that has emerged from the inquiry is that the Press Complaints Commission needs reforming. Lord Black, chairman of the body which funds it, told the inquiry that phone hacking has demonstrated that this institution lacks the investigative powers and the leverage needed to enforce editors to uphold their Code of Practice and apply punitive sanctions (01.02.12, BBC News). In a move which pre-empts the inquiry report the Press Complaints Commission announced in March 2012 that it would be closing and an interim body would take over until a new framework for a regulatory power can be put into place. This apparent failure of self-regulation has reignited the familiar debate as to how exactly the press should be regulated; can they be relied upon to implement it themselves or should some form of statutory regulation be resorted to? Cameron has indicated that the latter situation is not one he favours given that government regulation of the media does not lead to a free media (06.09.11, BBC News). He has not ruled out the idea however that independent regulation might function better if it was inaugurated through statute but kept removed from the government (06.09.11, BBC News). This would produce a body that is not dissimilar to Ofcom, which was created through statute and charged with overseeing the compliance of TV and radio to a code of practice. It is also an institution which firmly believes self-regulation can work for the press providing its governing council has ‘effective powers of enforcement and sanction’ and ‘genuine powers of investigation’ ( O’Carroll, The Guardian, 2012). Ofcom too believes that if self-regulation is to be viable then some aspects of it, particularly the rules governing membership, may have to be upheld by statute (O’Carroll). Other contributors to the ongoing debate about self-regulation have identified alternative aspects of the regulatory process which might be more effective if enforced by law. For instance O’Malley and Soley have argued that there is no reason why there should not be laws that guarantee the right to correction of factual inaccuracies in the press (O’Malley and Soley, p.2). Conservative MP George Eustice has come forward to say that a clearer privacy law which unequivocally balances the right to privacy against the right to freedom of expression would benefit both the public and the press (Eustice, The Guardian, 2012). Not everyone sees the phone hacking scandal as a failure of self-regulation. The Guardian’s Gill Phillip points the blame at internal management and the police for not investigating evidence they first obtained in 2006 (Phillips, 2012). The Press Complaints Commission, Phillips argues, was not designed to address criminal conduct (Phillips). If this situation was to be dealt with through more top-down regulation the result would be heightened complexity which would do no more than obscure the public’s rights and the press’ responsibilities(Phillips). Belsey certainly concurs with this standpoint arguing in Britain the media are already curtailed by the criminal laws of, to name a few, official secrets and sedition, by the civil laws of libel and breach of confidence, and as well as through the use of interlocutory or ‘gagging’ injunctions (Belsey, 1992, p. 6). Adding privacy to this list would have a damaging effect on journalism whilst in all likelihood having no impact on the gossip of tabloids. Furthermore legal restriction on the press will not only curb its democratic role but will also increase the instances when a journalist if faced with the dilemma of acting either legally or ethically (Belsey, p. 8; Harriss, 1992, p. 68). Conclusion – the way forward for self-regulation Self-regulation has been and continues to be undeniably flawed and this is typified by the activity of the NoW. This has been recognised and a significant overhaul of the system is on the agenda. Lord Hunt has proposed that the successor to the Press Complaints Commission should have two arms; the first should address complaints and mediation, the second should operate as an auditor which enforces standards and adherence to the editors’ code.   Additionally a more pronounced effort should be made by newspapers internally to self-regulate through the appointment of individuals responsible for compliance (Greenslade, The Guardian, 2012). This would create a regulatory body which has the ability to demand a continued and unwavering commitment to ethical journalism. Ofcom too are confident that if this new body has a robust framework and the authority to impose sanctions on wayward newspapers, effectual self-regulation could at last be overseeing the activity of the press (Oâ₠¬â„¢Carroll). The case of the Press Complaints Commission illustrates that voluntary self-regulation has been little more than a token effort at control over the industry. The blame for this, Tunstall suggests and events corroborate, is with the government for not finding the courage to insist on a compulsory system (Tunstall, 1996, p. 391). In all likelihood the press may have to reconcile themselves with the idea that their membership to this yet undecided regulator will be made obligatory by law. Arguably it would be this new system which differentiates the upcoming regulator from those which have fallen in its wake, and differentiation is certainly needed if the same failures of the past are not to be repeated. Bibliography Belsey, A., ‘Privacy, publicity and politics’, in Belsey and R. Chadwick (ed.), Ethical issues in journalism and the media, Routledge, London, 1992 Harris, N., ‘Codes of conduct for journalists’, in Belsey and R. Chadwick (ed.), 1992 O’Malley, T., and C. Soley, Regulating the Press, Pluto Press, London, 2000 Tunstall, J., Newspaper Power, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996 ‘News of the World: An obituary’, 08.07.11, BBC News ‘Cameron warns MPs against regulation ‘revenge’ on media’, 06.09.11, BBC News ‘Phone hacking scandal: Timeline’, 28.02.12, BBC News ‘QA; The Leveson Inquiry’, 24.04.12, BBC News Greesnlade, R., ‘Hunt’s plan for a new form of press self-regulation, The Guardian, 09.03.12 Phillips, G., ‘Press freedom v privacy: Time for parliament to draw the line? The Guardian, 30.03.12 Eustice, G.,‘A privacy law is vital for the future of the British media’, The Guardian, 08.04.12 O’Carroll, L., ‘Ofcom: press self-regulation could work’, The Guardian, 18.04.2012 All BBC News articles accessed at www.bbc.co.uk/news on 28.04.12 All Guardian articles accessed at www.guardian.ac.uk on 28.04.12

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Demand for Bonds Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Demand for Bonds - Essay Example Thus there will be a windfall loss if bonds are purchased. Thus, bond demand will be low. This also implies that if expected future bond prices are high, then the demand for bonds will rise and vice-versa. iv) Expected inflation: Expected inflation has an adverse impact on bond demand. If there is an increase in expected inflation, bond demand will fall and vice versa. v) Relative risk: If the risk associated with a bond increases relative to other assets the demand for that bond will fall. Analogously if there is a decline in the relative riskiness of a bond, its demand will increase. vi) Relative liquidity: If there is an increase in the relative liquidity of a bond, i.e., if converting the bond into cash becomes relatively easier, the demand for it shall rise if other things remain the same and vice versa. vi) Business-cycle movements: If the economy is undergoing a boom, there will be an increase in the demand for bonds. Similarly, the demand for bonds will fall if the economy is suffering a recessionary period. b) Analyse the following statement:   â€Å"This week, the yield on the US Treasury note closed below 3%, a level not seen in 50 years. In the UK, the 10-year Gilt yield sits below 4% for the first time since 1961, according to UBS. Germany’s Bund yield is closing in on 3%. ... This time, the threat of delfation is being taken more seriously. Should policymakers again avert that fate, bond yiels may be primed for an explosive rise as fiscal spending plans and the expansion in money supply suggest inflation is the likely outcome†. [Source: Financial times 28-Nov-2008] Before commenting on the report it will be useful to note that as mentioned above bond demands (and thus investment) are induced by business cycle booms and dissuaded during recessions. However, during booms since the threat of inflation looms large, it is a natural counteracting force to the possibility of overinvestment. Similarly, during recessions, the adverse effect on the demand for bonds can be countered by the threat of deflation. Now, let's turn to the report. The first and foremost point to note in this context is the date of the report. It is dated November, 2008. Thus the US, UK and the German economies were in recession, arguably the worst one since the great depression (This was during the heart of the global financial crisis). Thus, one should expect expansionary monetary policies during this time. Lower interest rates ideally stimulated investment demand and thus increase the effective demand which leads to an expansion in real aggregate output with a multiplier effect and thus employment as well. What is reported seems to be along the same lines of intention. The current yields on US Treasury note fell to a level that was a precedent in 50 years. Similarly there was a decline in long term yields in the UK economy (gilt) and Germany (bund yields). However, in order for this policy to work, the falling bond yields